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Transition Metals (e.g. Cobalt, Copper, Manganese) Occupation and Health.



Health effects 

Risk reduction 


Note: this page is still in preparation

This page fulfils two purposes which are tenuosly linked. In common with the other pages in this educational resource it provides information regarding occupational exposure, health effects and related aspects pertaining, in this case, to the transition metals such as Cobalt, Copper and Manganese).

Secondly it will be illustrated (when the author finds the time to get round to it) by images from trips to mines such as the Alderley Edge mines, and the Manganese mines in the Leyn peninsula of North Wales, especially Nant - Gadwen and Benallt - Rhyn.


Manganese is a transition metal which
  • occurs naturally in the earth's crust, in various forms 
  • generally helps resistance to corrosion therefore it is used in metal alloys 


Sources of exposure:

Occupational exposures may arise in:

  • miners, and refiners 
  • alloy manufacturers
  • other contexts e.g. in 'dry' battery manufacture (MnO2)

Health effects

  • Note: 

Health Effects include

  • Respiratory consequences - pneumonitis

  • Neirological damage - Parkinson's disease

Risk reduction

Note the following problems especially: 
  • In refining - 
  • In metal alloys-
  • Elsehwhere -.

Examples of Preventive Measures - avoiding hazards, and reducing risks

Footnote about the Alderley Edge Mines 

Footnote about Manganese Mining in North Wales 

  • {To follow}

Internet References: